Some of the most common neurological brain injuries are;

  • Stroke
  • Haemorrhage
  • MS
  • Alzheimer’s Dementia
  • Parkinson’s


A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is cut off.

There are two types of stroke;

  • Ischaemic – where the blood supply is stopped due to a blood clot
  • Haemorrhagic – where weakened blood vessels supplying the brain burst and cause brain damage

Symptoms of a stroke and the actions to take can be remembered by the letters F-A-S-T;

  • Face – may have dropped to one side
  • Arms – may not be able to lift one or both
  • Speech – may be slurred or not able to speak at all
  • Time – if the above occur dial 999


A brain haemorrhage, also known as a subarachnoid haemorrhage, is a type of stoke caused by bleeding in or around the brain.  It is usually caused by a burst aneurysm, a bulge in a blood vessel as a result of weakened vessel walls.

Common symptoms are;

  • Sudden and severe headache
  • Vomiting
  • Seizure or ‘fit’
  • Loss of consciousness

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

MS is a condition of the central nervous system which occurs when the substance that coats the nerve fibres (myelin) is damaged.

The symptoms of MS are vast, as the central nervous systems links everything the body does.

  • Symptoms include;
  • Balance problems/dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Stiffness/spasms
  • Speech
  • Tremors
  • Bladder & Bowel problems

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, physical, disease that affects the brain.

The disease causes protein plaques to develop in the brain, which causes the death of brain cells.

Symptoms of the disease include;

  • Confusion
  • Forgetfulness
  • Mood swings
  • Becoming withdrawn
  • Difficulties with everyday tasks

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia.


Parkinson’s is a progressive condition and is a result of low levels of dopamine caused by nerve cells in the brain dying.

The main symptoms of the illness are tremors, rigidity and slowness of movement.  Other symptoms that may be experience include those of a physical nature, such as bladder and bowel problems, fatigue, sweating and mental health problems, e.g. anxiety, dementia, depression and memory problems.

Not all of the symptoms associated with Parkinson’s will be experienced and will vary from person to person.

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